A Second Kōkū Sentai (Sōryū, Hiryū) was added to the 23rd Kuchikutai (Destroyer Unit), and later a fourth Kōkū Sentai (Ryūjō), and more destroyers in August. Top speed: 26 knots Armour: Max: 9 mm Armament: 8 x 127 mm cannons, 38 x 25 mm AA guns, 31 planes Crew: 989. She was originally laid down as the large oil tanker Hiryu, whose construction began in 1919, but the Japanese high command aware of the success of the British in the field of aircraft carriers requisitioned this ship in 1920 for converion. In June 1942, Midway’s losses prompted the high command to convert her into an aircraft carrier. Conversion work lasted from 1942 to late 1943, and Shinyo was commissioned into the Japanese Navy in December 1943. The IJN’s love affair with naval aviation came a long way. With the loss of Hiryu and the three others, experienced pilots and trained crews, Japan was left without any possibility of destroying what was left of the Pacific fleet in a short time. Japanese Navy JS Izumo DDH 183 undergoing modification to become aircraft carrier class ship, at the Japan Marine United shipyard in Yokohama. The Japanese Navy then purchased the ship, and after the Battle of Midway in June 1942, decided to convert her into an aircraft carrier. The Admiralty decided to turn them into aircraft carriers to avoid demolishing them. Design/Conversion: Simple conversion. IJN Ryuho was a 1937 seaplane tender converted in 1942, Displacement: 13,360 t. standard -16 700 t. Full Load Dimensions: 215.6 m long, 19.6 m wide, 6.6 m draft Machinery: 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 4 boilers, 52,000 hp. These two famous heavy aircraft carriers were approved in 1937 with the aim of constituting a considerable improvement of Hiryu and Soryu, considered out of date. She was actually confused with Shoho during the Battle of the Coral Sea. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The ships also could also carry 27 Daihatsu-class landing craft. 99 $19.00 $19.00. In 1944 Taiyo and Unyo yielded two of their 127 mm turrets for 265 mm tubes batteries, for a total of 68, as well as ten 13 mm heavy machine guns. Media in category "Aircraft carriers of the Imperial Japanese Navy" The following 2 files are in this category, out of 2 total. Like Akagi from the reconstruction of a canceled ship project due to the moratorium of the Washington Treaty. Japan, 1919-45. The shift away from battleships as main target to the aircraft carriers was apparent in naval games by the mid-1930s, notably with a new generation of precision tools, the dive-bombers, for which Japan was ready to be invested in intensive training. The 1st air fleet was created in April 1941, the gradual gathering of three carrier divisions called tkōkū sentai (air flotillas) and a major component of the Combined Fleet (Rengō Kantai). In the eearly days, the IJN carrier operated both seaplanes and land planes. She was soon equipped with a hangar, AA and specific equipment, back into service under the name of Taiyo with her original machinery. It was decided to fall back on the Kaga, also from an unfinished ship. Work was completed in 1942 and the ships were back into service two months apart. The latter differed by her machinery, less powerful. But Yorktown was not sinking until 5 days later, after being evacuated, torpedoed by a submarine. Required fields are marked *. The presence of both troops and vehicles with landing crafts in a flooded dock below and aviation support above, made the ship the world’s first amphibious assault vessel, an early LHD. There was no tims for a reconstruction, so she was used as a training carrier. “Rex” was the allied intelligence code. It became the mainstay of the IJNA until the end of the war and beyond, retired in 1924-25. The Amagi and Akagi were two battle cruisers of the class of the same name, ordered in 1917 and whose construction was well completed when the Washington Treaty came into effect in 1921. 111, the third unit of the unfinished Yamato class, due to unsufficient reserves. This ship was originally the seaplane tender IJN Taigei, in service since 1935. Conventional aircraft could fly off from her deck but not land, until July 1944 when a KX arresting gear was fitted. Zeke was the Japanese symbolic name and “Zero” the allied code, inspired by the Imperial year code Reisen (“year zero”). In January 1944, she was torpedoed by USS Bowfin off Makassar. Hiryu was catch with her bridge and hangars loaded with bombs and aviation gasoline in the inter-deck, but she was lucky to be far enough away from the other three at this time to be spared. Two others were based on Hitachi’s 8,000-ton, 19 knots (22 mph; 35 km/h) Type-M cargo. The Washington Naval allowed Japanese to request two incomplete capital ships to be rebuilt as carriers, the IJN Akagi and Amagi. They had only one hangar and no tower bridge. The Kokusai Ki-76 (a recce plane close to the Fieseler Storch) and Kayaba Ka-1 were flown off Akitsu Maru. IJN Unryu was torpedoed by the submarine USS Redfish in the China Sea, IJN Amagi was bombed Kure by the US 3rd Fleet, just like Katsuragi and the other three being completed. Certainly with her sister ship, the best carrier in the world at that time. None will participate in the battle of Leyte, or a major battle. Her construction made use of the steel reserved for the construction of No. However after Midway and other crippling battles for the IJN, the 1st fleet division became in 1944 largely a land-based fleet of “kichi kōkūtai” (base air unit(s)), its carriers played a bait role at Leyte. It also had two 203 mm double turrets at the front and six barbettes. In New Britain and New Guinea in January 1942, only the 1st and 5th Kōkū Sentai participated in operations, the others operated separately. Top speed: 29 knots Armament: 4 x 127 AA, 48 x 25 mm AA, 6 x 28 launch rockets, 30 grenades ASM, 27 aircraft Crew: 942, Your email address will not be published. In fact, the aircraft carrier balance was to decide the fate of the conflict. A fourth comprised the IJN Ryūjō and Kasuga Maru (later Taiyō). However conversion was never completed. Total carrying capacity was “only” 100 aircraft, of which 70 were usable, the others kept in reserve, and only 47 actually operational at all time for the air group. But the Japanese were not used to this type of aircraft carrier, and they were used as transport aircraft able to defend themselves with their own aircraft, and for training pilots. Hher fighters made a carnage among American torpedo bombers, but as her air group was converted from an attack on Midway tp an attack on the USN carriers, planes loaded with bombs and fuels cluttering her deck and hangars, Douglas Dauntless dive bombers hit her after Kaga and Akagi. Top speed: 34.5 knots Armament: 12 x 127 AA, 28 x 25 mm AA, 71 aircraft Crew: 1100. They differed somewhat in tonnage and Amagi and Katsuragi received no less than eight nine 25mm guns instead of fifty-one on Unryu. His aircraft made two assaults before Admiral Yamamoto decided to cancel the third, believing that the surprise effect no longer played in their favor. On 22 July her convoy was attacked at 40 nautical miles southwest of Buin by three waves of American bombers (SBD Dauntless, Consolidated B-24 Liberator). At 10:24, after her Zero fighters repelled several attacks, and just at the moment when the first aircraft of the counteroffensive took off, a squadron of dive bomber arrived. The first three were started in 1942, launched in 1943 and completed in 1944, Unryu and Amagi in August, and Katsuragi in October. In the end, gunnery staffs (used to work with spotter planes) joined naval aviators, to ask a doctrine around a pre-emptive strike was crafted. However, between news of Mitchell’s experiments in the US and more powerful engines, it was now possible to carry out torpedo-bombing missions with confidence and integrate more offensive roles to the carrier division. IJN Chitose was launched in 1936, Chiyoda in 1937, and Mizuho, a little different, in 1938. The Hosho however, was completed before, and became the world’s first operational aircraft carrier, built as such. The latter displaced “only” 59,000 tons fully loaded. Repaired, she was able after armistice, to repatriate Japanese POWs and troops and was BU in 1947. The beginnings of Japanese naval aviation in 1912 found a first concrete application on 23 August 1914. Top speed: 28.3 knots Armor: Decks 265, belt 250 Armament: 10 x 203, 16 x 100, 30 x 25 mm AA, 90 aircraft Crew: 2,016. Each kōkū sentai was a self-contained tactical unit, with or without destroyer escort, which can be detached or attached to others depending on the mission. Repaired in Singapore, she was converted back as a fleet oiler in April-August 1944. At the same time he received new, more powerful machines, his speed gaining two tenths of a knot. The role of this seaplane carrier could not be underestimated. The Kaga as delivered, showing her amazing three-staged flying-off decks. She took part in the invasions of Shanghai, Malaya and Java. with Heinkel, 20 built –Nakajima E4N (1930), recce floatplane, 153 built, retired late 1930s –Hiro H4H (1933) recce seaplane, 47 built, retired 1940 –Kawanishi E7K (1934) main recce floatplane, 533 built, served in WW2 –Nakajima E8N (1935) Main recce floatplane, 755 built, served WW2 codename “Pete” -Kawanishi E10K (1934) experimental transport/recce floatplane –Kawanishi H6K (1936) four engine flying boat, 215 built. Her onboard staff amounted to 91 aircraft. This wall of fire was in principle impassable, but exactly 10 days after her commissioning, her crew still testing all systems, she was spotted and torpedoed during her first and only shakedown trip off the Japanese coast by the submarine USS Archerfish, launching a full salvo. She served first as troop transport until December 1942 and like her twin Brazil maru sank in 1942, was chosen to be converted into an aircraft carrier. In the face of this failure, IJN Ryujo was taken over for a radical reconstruction in 1934-36. She was damaged near Java in 1943 and towed for repairs in Singapore, scuttled and BU in 1947. Her career ended when USS Drum torpedoed IJN Mizuho on 1st May 1942, 40 nautical miles off Omaezaki, Japan just before midnight. With a total displacement on at least 52,000 long tons, she was the largest aircraft carrier ever built in the world at that time. Support Naval Encyclopedia, get your poster or wallpaper now ! A third Kōkū Sentai (3rd Carrier Division, with Zuihō, Hōshō was attached to First Fleet in December, at first distinct from First Air Fleet, but it was disbanded on 1 April 1942. Top speed: 29 knots Armament: 8 x 127 AA, 4 x 25 mm AA, 48 aircraft Crew: 924. The Imperial Japanese Navy started the Pacific War with 10 aircraft carriers, the largest and most modern carrier fleet in the world at that time. The conversion of the most powerful warship of all time into an aircraft carrier would give the largest and best armoured aircraft carrier of the Second World War. They also soon advocated the enemy’s carriers were to be main targets of naval air power. She was present at the Battle of Leyte, sunk on 25 October at Cape Engano by the American Air Force. The whole lineage of the IJN aviation proceeded from there. The First Air Fleet was a naval battlegroup without any equivalent in the world at the time as no fleet concentrated as much carriers into a single force. A fifth Kōkū Sentai was added with IJN Shokaku and Zuikaku in December. In operations however, 81 planes were really usable, and on the eve of Midway, 66. She was the same size and tonnage, took most of her features, but was extended one meter to carry extra fuel and fuel oil. Paperback $15.99 $ 15. Naval air training was transferred there, and it stayed until WW2 the IJNA academy. On 5 September, they bombed the Bismarck battery, a key point on Tsingtao’s fortifications. Only these three vessels had an operational life, however short. Indeed, she was not only at the same time a Japanese landing craft depot ship, and escort aircraft carrier and a autogyro carrier, so an ancestor of modern helicopter carriers. The result was not long in coming: Launched in April 1931 and completed in May 1933, IJN Ruyjo was dangerously unstable, taking an uncontrollable roll as she was overloaded with high metacentric point. IJN Akagi was eventually completed in 1927 and Kaga in 1928, but with the Hosho, this gave the IJN a way to create and experiment new doctrines and operating procedures. Top speed: 21 knots Armor: 150 mm (stores) Armament: 4 guns of 127, 68 guns of 25 and 10 mitt. IJN Nitta Maru and Yawata Maru being of the same type, it was decided to requisition them in turn, and to transform them the same way, giving a class of three ships. In April 1943, she joined the 3rd Southern Expeditionary Fleet, Southwest Area Fleet. On 6 September 1914 was the very first air-sea battle in history. As modified as the Type-MB they could carry twelve Toku-Daihatsu class landing craft, launched via stern doors, horizontal funnels on starboard and flight deck. –Mitsubishi B2M (1932) 206 built, based on Blackburn Ripon, retired 1939-1940 –Yokosuka B4Y (1935) 205 built, biplane, retired 1943 –Mitsubishi B5M (1936) fixed carriage monoplan bomber, 125 built –Nakajima B5N (1937) 1,150 built, main torpedo bomber –Yokosuka P1Y1 Ginga “Frances” (1943) Navy Land-Based twin engines Bomber, 1098 built, Mitsubishi MC-20-II, close to the L4M, Naval transport plane –Yokosuka K2Y (1929), main navy trainer based on Avro 504, rarely mounted on floats. In June 1943 she was sent to New Guinea, carrying reinforcements to Bougainville Island. 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