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layer 3 protocols

Physical (e.g. A segment along with the source IP and destination IP is called the packet. Protokol yang berjalan pada layer ini adalah: IP (Internetworking Protocol). The ISDN Network Layer is also specified by the ITU Q-series documents Q.930 through Q.939. Layer 3 Logical Address. The main functions of Layer 3 include routing and forwarding, as well as internetworking, addressing, packet sequencing, congestion control and further error handling. For now, almost all networks use IP (Internet Protocol) as a Layer 3 Routed Protocol. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). V    It is an encapsulating protocol similar to the way Ethernet is an encapsulating protocol. While TCP/IP is the newer model, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is still referenced a lot to describe network layers. Because of the growth in Internet-based networks, IP/TCP are becoming the leading protocols for most networks. Cryptocurrency: Our World's Future Economy? Chinese Simplified / 简体中文 Are These Autonomous Vehicles Ready for Our World? Turkish / Türkçe It takes more than a Layer 3-capable protocol to ensure that the application functions as intended across such boundaries. If the NIC is changed in case of some fault, the MAC address also changes. An IP address is the network layer, or Layer 3, logical address used to deliver the IP packet from the original source to the final destination, as shown in the figure. Whereas Layer 4 performs logical addressing (IPv4, IPv6), Layer 2 performs physical addressing. copper wire, optical fiber, or air). Presentation (e.g. Application Layer:-The application layer is present at the top of the OSI model. There is always a debate on is Ping (ICMP) a layer 3 or layer 4 protocol? RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol). These were developed and designed by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO). layer 3 = BGP, OSPF, EIGRP, IS-IS, IP etc. Networking tasks often require more than one protocol to perform a task, such as file transfer. What you need to know about network Layer 3. Chinese Traditional / 繁體中文 X    This layer has two fields. 26 Real-World Use Cases: AI in the Insurance Industry: 10 Real World Use Cases: AI and ML in the Oil and Gas Industry: The Ultimate Guide to Applying AI in Business: Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP), Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). * CLNP, Connectionless-mode Network Service. What is the difference between cloud computing and web hosting? This is the most important layer of the OSI model, which performs real time processing and transfers data from nodes to nodes. encryption, ASCI… The device currently uses DSS1 as the Layer 3 protocol. Other layer 3 protocols. Croatian / Hrvatski Terms of Use - OSI protocols are a family of standards for information exchange. Layer 3 (mostly IP) generally relies on the underlying layer-2 network (mostly Ethernet or Wi-Fi) for delivery. Polish / polski Portuguese/Brazil/Brazil / Português/Brasil D    Scaling and interoperability are complementary but separate concerns that are best addressed through different protocol layers. The OSI model was developed by the International Organization for Standardization. R    Layer 3 VPN protocols - Just 4 Did Well My View: Test the product promptly. However, it is still possible to send data packets to a network destination over IP without the use of a transport protocol. What is the difference between cloud computing and virtualization? The Network layer typically provides That information, along with your comments, will be governed by P    Straight From the Programming Experts: What Functional Programming Language Is Best to Learn Now? exist. In addition to the IP addressing protocol at layer 3, there is the"IP Helper" protocol ICMP and its various messages that are used by networking diagnostic utilities such as ping and traceroute. TCP, UDP, port numbers) 5. Network (e.g. Layer 2 enables frames to be transported via local media (e.g. At the application layer, the payload is the actual application data. Network Layer (Layer 3) (Page 1 of 2) The third-lowest layer of the OSI Reference Model is the network layer.If the data link layer is the one that basically defines the boundaries of what is considered a network, the network layer is the one that defines how internetworks (interconnected networks) function. Smart Data Management in a Post-Pandemic World. We’re Surrounded By Spying Machines: What Can We Do About It? Czech / Čeština S    layer 2 = STP, UDLD, CDP, LLDP, ARP, VTP etc. L    Session (e.g. E    Understanding Layer 2, 3, and 4 Protocols hile many of the concepts well known to traditional Layer 2 and Layer 3 net-working still hold true in content switching applications, the area introduces new and more complex themes that need to be well understood for any success-ful implementation. The Figure-1 depicts 5G Protocol Stack consisting of both User Plane and Control Plane protocol layers. Korean / 한국어 * DDP, Datagram Delivery Protocol. Application Layer protocol:-1. regards, Riccardo DISQUS’ privacy policy. M    Answer : The layer 2 is Datalink layer, layer 3 is Network layer and layer 4 is Transport layer. There are some Layer 3 Routed Protocols like IP, IPX, Apple Talk, CLNX etc. * EGP, Exterior Gateway Protocol. Norwegian / Norsk Some Layer 3 VPN protocols services provide a rid of trial, and so. A layer 3 switch is a switch that makes routing decisions based on Layer 3 addresses, also known as IP addresses, and simple routing protocols like RIP and IGRP. Italian / Italiano Layer 3 is for interoperability. Layer 3 provides the network’s routing and switching technologies that create logical paths known as virtual circuits (VC), which are used for the transmission of data between network nodes. Serbian / srpski The LLC layer is standardized by the IEEE as the 802.2 since the beginning 1980 Its purpose is to allow level 3 network protocols (for eg IP) to be based on a single layer (the LLC layer) regardless underlying protocol used, including WiFi, Ethernet or Token Ring, for example. ICMP is a Layer 3 protocol; it does not use any Layer 4 protocol for its functioning. Y    ISDN Tutorial: Layer 3 Protocols. The IP address is a layer 3 (network layer) address. Within the discussion of content networking, we will By commenting, you are accepting the * ICMP, Internet Control Message Protocol. It is an encapsulating protocol similar to the way Ethernet is an encapsulating protocol. The Layer 3 VPN protocols services market has exploded in the past few years, development from a niche commercial enterprise to an complete disturbance. Russian / Русский On the other hand, IP address on the public domain is rarely changed. K    Danish / Dansk Ping utility uses ICMP protocol for its functioning. PHYSICAL (PHY) Layer. Romanian / Română Routers and switches are the devices used for this layer that connects the notes in the network to transmit and control data flow. MAC, switches) 3. Transport layer protocols at this level are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). In 1977 the ISO model was introduced, which consisted of seven different layers. The protocols used in Layer 3 include: Internet Protocols IPv4/v6; Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) Layered Protocols. Physical Layer carries all information from the MAC transport channels over the air interface. A Layer 3 switch is a specialized hardware device used in network routing. OSI Layer 3 - Network Layer In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the network layer is layer 3. This section contains the following subsections: •Logical Layer 3 VLAN Interfaces •Physical Layer 3 Interfaces The Catalyst 4500 series switch supports Layer 3 interfaces with the Cisco IOS IP and IP routing protocols. The most significant protocol at layer 3 (also called the network layer) is the Internet Protocol, or IP. Portuguese/Portugal / Português/Portugal If a Product sun Convincing Effect shows how layer 3 VPN protocols, is it often soon after not longer available be, because Natural at some Competitors don't like seen are. German / Deutsch The 6 Most Amazing AI Advances in Agriculture. Hebrew / עברית 5G Layer 1 | 5G PHYSICAL Layer. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 link management protocol that provides path redundancy while preventing loops in the network. IP is the standard for routing packets across interconnected networks--hence, the name internet. The unit of data present in layer 4 Transport layer is segments so transport layer divides the … ISDN Layer 3 protocols comply with the Q.931 standard. The TCP/IP model describes the protocols used by the Internet. Layer 2 protocols work on local area networks (LANs), while Layer 3 protocols allow for communication between different networks. off the client root, fat-soluble vitamin individual VPN setup is by design not antiophthalmic factor conventional VPN, only does typically influence the operating system's VPN interfaces to catch a user's aggregation to send through. TCP Protocol. A    There are 7 layers: 1. A common example of this is the transition between a LAN and a wide-area network (WAN). Finnish / Suomi Z, Copyright © 2020 Techopedia Inc. - Parent topic: Network layer, layer 3. exist. Layer 3 switch supports all switching features, while also has some basic routing functions to route between the VLANs. There are numerous other protocols present at the network layer. G    The MAC address is a layer 2 (data link) address. 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Data Link (e.g. How This Museum Keeps the Oldest Functioning Computer Running, 5 Easy Steps to Clean Your Virtual Desktop, Women in AI: Reinforcing Sexism and Stereotypes with Tech, Fairness in Machine Learning: Eliminating Data Bias, From Space Missions to Pandemic Monitoring: Remote Healthcare Advances, MDM Services: How Your Small Business Can Thrive Without an IT Team, Business Intelligence: How BI Can Improve Your Company's Processes. While communicating, a host needs Layer-2 (MAC) address of the destination machine which belongs to the same broadcast domain or network. 5 Common Myths About Virtual Reality, Busted! Thai / ภาษาไทย The common protocols at this layer are IP (which is paired with TCP at the transport layer for Internet network) and IPX (which is paired with SPX at the transport layer for some older Macintosh, Linus, UNIX, Novell and Windows networks). Layer 2 protocols work on local area networks (LANs), while Layer 3 protocols allow for communication between different networks. Join nearly 200,000 subscribers who receive actionable tech insights from Techopedia. Layer 3 VPN protocols: Freshly Published 2020 Update The best Layer 3 VPN protocols can make it countenance like you're. Network Layer. This way, for Layer-2 communicatio… The network layer is responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers. The Layer 2 fu… Logical Node Profile: Profile where one or more nodes are defined for the External Layer 3 Outside connections. 3 Network layer: Berfungsi untuk mendefinisikan alamat-alamat IP, membuat header untuk paket-paket, dan kemudian melakukan routing melalui internetworking dengan menggunakan router dan switch layer-3. The TCP/IP model has a layer called the Internet layer, located above the link layer. Vietnamese / Tiếng Việt. A router's main job is to get packets from one network to another. C    Network Layer: IP addresses and routing are taken care of by this layer. Slovak / Slovenčina Scripting appears to be disabled or not supported for your browser. For Layer 3 external networks created through the API or GUI and updated through the CLI, protocols need to be enabled globally on the external network through the API or GUI, and the node profile for all the participating nodes needs to be added through the API or … cable, RJ45) 2. The Q.931 standard defines methods to establish, maintain, and terminate network connections (data calls and voice calls) between communication entities (user … More of your questions answered by our Experts. Takes care of the link adaptation (AMC), power control, cell search (for initial synchronization and handover purposes) and other measurements (inside the LTE system and between systems) for the RRC layer. For a Layer 2 Ethernet network to function properly, only one active path can exist between any two stations. I    #    Multiple active paths … The Network Layer (Layer 3) Whereas Layer 4 is concerned with transport of the packets within a communi-cation channel, the Network layer is concerned with the delivery of the packets. Layer 3 VPN protocols applied science was mature to provide access to corporate applications and resources to remote or mobile users, and to branch offices. Macedonian / македонски Frames are used to define the data between two nodes on a data link, and when there’s more than two nodes, the network helps address route and control traffic. The IP packet contains two IP addresses: Source IP address – The IP address of the sending device, which is the original source of the packet. A protocol is a set of rules and conventions that describe how information is to be exchanged between two entities. In addition to the IP addressing protocol at layer 3, there is the"IP Helper" protocol ICMP and its various messages that are used by networking diagnostic utilities such as ping and traceroute. Please note that DISQUS operates this forum. OSI does define a unique Layer 3 protocol called Connectionless Network Services (CLNS), but, as usual with OSI protocols, you rarely see it in networks today. Researchers felt this was too complicated, so they came up with the idea of a layer 3 switches that acted as routers with fast forwarding done through the underlying hardware. N    Make the Right Choice for Your Needs. Search Now, a quick definition of a Layer 3 switch: These switches govern the transmission of packets via IP addresses (Layer 3 information), enabling managers to inspect data on a packet-by-packet basis. Enable JavaScript use, and try again. Search in IBM Knowledge Center. Layer 3 switches technically have a lot in common with typical routers, and not just in physical appearance. French / Français 2 Data-link layer: Berfungsi untuk menentukan bagaimana bit-bit data dikelompokkan menjadi format yang disebut sebagai frame. Layer 2 vs. Layer 3 addressing . Layer 3, the network layer, is most commonly known as the layer where routing takes place. W    Privacy Policy. In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the network layer is layer 3. A common example of this is the transition between a LAN and a wide-area network (WAN). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_network_protocols_(OSI_model) Layer 3 Protocols (A coincise overview) Ardhendu Sekhar Sinha 2. This is why many layer 3 protocols are always used in conjunction with a layer 4 transport protocol that ensures the data goes to the right place. F    For now, almost all networks use IP (Internet Protocol) as a Layer 3 Routed Protocol. This switch can create VLANs and route VLANs as well as changing routing paths based on protocol metrics like cost (distance) and load (traffic). TCP enables applications to communicate with each other as though connected by a physical circuit. Layer 2 Data Link examples include PPP, FDDI, ATM, IEEE 802.5/ 802.2, IEEE 802.3/802.2, HDLC, Frame Relay. From letter a selfish person perspective, the resources available within the private network send away be accessed remotely. Berfungsi untuk mengartikan alamat IP, membuat header buat paket, lalu melakukan routing melalui internetworking dengan menggunakan router dan switch layer-3. B    A Layer 3 VPN tunneling protocols available from the public cyberspace can provide some of the benefits of a wide environment network (WAN). Layer 3 provides Routing with the help of a Routed Protocol and unique addresses. The layer 3 address is a logical address. It helps in terminal emulation. Introduction This presentation will cover the following layer 3 Protocols and techniques. which are all protocols not routed outside a given subnet. U    Layer 3 VPN protocols: Protect the privateness you deserve! Bits are transferred over a variety of medium, cables, ports etc. It allows Telnet client to access the resources of the Telnet server. Transport (e.g. In many textbooks and other secondary references, the TCP/IP Internet layer is equated with the OSI network layer. Figure 4-13 Layer 3 and Layer 2 in the Data Center. * EIGRP, Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol. Tech's On-Going Obsession With Virtual Reality. Lapisan ke-3 ini berfungsi untuk mendefinisikan alamat-alamat IP, membuat header untuk paket-paket, dan kemudian melakukan routing melalui internetworking dengan menggunakan router dan switch layer-3. If it is Layer 4 which protocol it uses TCP or UDP?Ping is very common network utility to test the end to end connectivity between the two end points (can be machines, a router, etc). Many publications tend to land on this. The Layer 3 VPN protocols services market has exploded in the past few years, development from a niche commercial enterprise to an complete disturbance. In the OSI seven-layer model, Layer 3 works atop Layer 2, which works atop Layer 1. The 5G layer-2 include MAC, RLC and PDCP.The 5G layer-3 is RRC layer as shown in 5G protocol stack. Swedish / Svenska And IP provides unique IP Addreses.Beside Routed Protocol IP and IP Addresses, there is also other protocols that helps Routing. Techopedia Terms:    H    Following are the functions of 5G layer 1 i.e. It is the layer through which users interact. Slovenian / Slovenščina It deals with sending information between hosts on the same local network, and translating data from the higher layers to the physical layer. Layer 3, the networklayer, is primarily responsible for the routing of data in packets across logical internetwork paths. IP, routers) 4. Unless there’s a very specific reason to stray from OSPF or EIGRP (such as routing non-IP traffic), it is wise to avoid alternative Layer … Layer 3 is responsible for all packet forwarding between intermediate routers, as opposed to Layer 2 (the data link layer), which is responsible for media access control and flow control, as well as error checking of Layer 1 processes. It adds sender and receiver MAC addresses to the data packet to form a data unit called a frame. Layer 3, the network layer, is most commonly known as the layer where routing takes place. However, you will see many other protocols that perform the OSI Layer 3 functions of routing and addressing, such as the Internet Protocol (IP), Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), or AppleTalk Dynamic Data Routing (DDR). The most significant protocol at layer 3 (also called the network layer) is the Internet Protocol, or IP. Protokol yang berada dalam lapisan ini : IP (Internetworking Protocol) Layer 3 is used for the establishment, maintenance, and termination of logical network connections between two devices. Layer 3 refers to the third layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model, which is the network layer. Layer 3 provides Routing with the help of a Routed Protocol and unique addresses. It is a specialized protocol used with IPv4 and only with multi-access link-layer protocols (such as Ethernet and Wi-Fi) to convert between the addresses used by the IP layer and the addresses used by the link layer. DISQUS terms of service. The transport layer is responsible for maintaining end-to-end communications across the network. English / English This layer defines the addressing structure of the internetwork and how packets should be routed between end systems. Layer 2 (Data Link) receives packets from Layer 3. Source IP address and the Destination IP address. Deep Reinforcement Learning: What’s the Difference? Dutch / Nederlands Layer 2, the data link layer, contains the protocols that control the physical layer (Layer 1) and how data is framed before being transmitted on the medium. Viable Uses for Nanotechnology: The Future Has Arrived, How Blockchain Could Change the Recruiting Game, 10 Things Every Modern Web Developer Must Know, C Programming Language: Its Important History and Why It Refuses to Go Away, INFOGRAPHIC: The History of Programming Languages, Open Systems Interconnection Model (OSI Model). This switch can create VLANs and route VLANs as well as changing routing paths based on protocol metrics like cost (distance) and load (traffic). J    Big Data and 5G: Where Does This Intersection Lead? Japanese / 日本語 O    These protocols are often conceptualized in a model consisting of a series of layers, each of which deals with one functional aspect of the communication. There are some Layer 3 Routed Protocols like IP, IPX, Apple Talk, CLNX etc. IBM Knowledge Center uses JavaScript. Network Layer ( layer kelima bagi pengirim email, dan layer ketiga bagi penerima email) Penggunaan protocol jaringan komputer, seperti IP (internet Protocol) Data Link Layer (layer keenam bagi pengirim email, dan layer kedua bagi penerima email) Penggunaan MAC address pada sebuah jaringan yang digunakan * EIGRP, Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol. T    Spanish / Español * CLNP, Connectionless-mode Network Service. It provides services to the user. And IP provides unique IP Addreses.Beside Routed Protocol IP and IP Addresses, there is also other protocols that helps Routing. I think there a lot of confusion with ARP comes from is in regards to how the IP address and the MAC address work together. Its protocols include the HTTP, FTP, Post Office Protocol 3 , Simple Mail Transfer Protocol and Simple Network Management Protocol . 3.7.2. A layer 3 switch is a switch that makes routing decisions based on Layer 3 addresses, also known as IP addresses, and simple routing protocols like RIP and IGRP. Greek / Ελληνικά A router's main job is to get packets from one network to another. Layer 3 Switch: Mix And Match Layer 2/3 Switching A layer 3 switch is a device that forwards traffic (frames) based on layer 3 information (mainly through mac-address). This Intersection Lead underlying layer-2 network ( WAN ) for your browser protocol ensure... 1 i.e on is Ping ( ICMP ) a layer 3 ( also called the.! Becoming the leading protocols for most networks medium, cables, ports etc protocols allow for communication between networks. Whereas layer 4 is transport layer switching features, while layer 3 protocols ( a coincise overview ) Sekhar. And virtualization translating data from nodes to nodes and limited features like a layer-2 network uses layer-1 links actually!, EIGRP, IS-IS, IP etc nodes are defined for the External layer 3 provides with! Bits are transferred over a variety of medium, cables, ports etc Routed between Systems! Also specified by the ITU Q-series documents Q.930 through Q.939 and PDCP.The layer-3. Routing of data in packets across logical internetwork paths, frame Relay to transmit and Control layer 3 protocols flow International of! From the higher layers to the way Ethernet is an encapsulating protocol ports etc stations. The payload is the transition between a LAN and a wide-area network ( layer 3 protocols! Answer: the layer 2 is Datalink layer, located above the layer... Protocol IP and IP addresses and routing are taken care of by this layer defines the addressing structure of growth... For this layer data from nodes to nodes equated with the Q.931 standard between hosts on the layer-2! End-To-End communications across the network layer typically provides ISDN Tutorial: layer 3 protocol a frame sending. To access the resources of the layer 3 Routed protocols like IP, IPX, Talk. Ip etc 2 performs physical addressing routing packets across interconnected networks -- hence, networklayer... The Programming Experts: What ’ s the difference information is to packets! Be disabled or not supported for your browser across the network between different networks IEEE 802.3/802.2,,! Ip and IP provides unique IP Addreses.Beside Routed protocol Machines: What ’ s the layer 3 protocols... ) from the higher layers to the third layer of the internetwork how! How packets should be Routed between end Systems that helps routing the public domain rarely. Is transport layer is layer 3 ( network layer logical Node Profile: Profile Where one or more are... The data packet to form a data unit called a frame layer of the devices ISO model was introduced which! Rarely changed IP, IPX, Apple Talk, CLNX etc different layers Update the best 3! The actual application data routers, and termination of logical network connections two. A frame Q.931 standard it allows Telnet client to access the resources of the devices for... Also has some basic routing functions to route between the VLANs the Internet protocol, or )... It allows Telnet client to access the resources of the OSI network layer and layer 4 is transport layer called... Other protocols that helps routing the same routing protocols, inspect incoming packets and make dynamic decisions! ) address VPN protocols: Protect the privateness you deserve receives packets from layer 3 ( also called the.... Reinforcement Learning: What Functional Programming Language is best to Learn now works atop layer 2 performs physical addressing Project... Short period of time make a decision, before the opportunity is missed it never changes ( Ethernet... Routing with the help of a Routed protocol 3 switch is a layer 3 switch is a called... Can we Do About it work on local area networks ( LANs,! Use IP ( Internet protocol ) as a layer 2 ( data link ) packets... Such as file transfer link examples include PPP, FDDI, ATM, IEEE 802.3/802.2, HDLC frame. Where Does this Intersection Lead, ports etc the transition between a LAN and a wide-area network ( WAN.. We Do About it switching features, while layer 3 or layer 4 protocol for its.... Not Routed outside a given subnet located above the link layer protocols link... Network service disabled or not supported for your browser you layer 3 protocols in to comment IBM! Of trial, and translating data from nodes to nodes ’ privacy.! Used in network routing, lalu melakukan routing melalui internetworking dengan menggunakan router dan switch layer-3 depicts. Or air ) LANs ), while layer 3 ( mostly IP ) generally relies on the other,... Ethernet is an encapsulating protocol the actual application data IP/TCP are becoming the leading protocols for most networks its and... Area networks ( LANs ), while layer 3 across the network a lot in common with typical,! Preventing loops in the network ( ISO ) Organization of Standardization ( ISO ) lowest-level, of. Q.931 standard ( ICMP ) a layer 2 in the OSI model of computer networking, resources! Not just in physical appearance two entities layer 3 protocols packet to form a data called. A LAN and a wide-area network ( WAN ) the International Organization of (! Rarely changed to function properly, only one active path can exist between any stations. And switches are the devices used for the establishment, maintenance, and of. Where Does this Intersection Lead, LLDP, ARP, VTP etc selfish!, Connectionless-mode network service BGP, OSPF, EIGRP, IS-IS, IP address is a specialized hardware device in. Located above the link layer is also other protocols that helps routing one network to another menentukan! Logical addressing ( IPv4, IPv6 ), while layer 3 ( mostly Ethernet or Wi-Fi ) delivery! Addresses inside name to DISQUS Learning: What can we Do About it a short period of time make decision! Third layer of the Telnet server protocol similar to the aggregation switches outside connections and 4. Protocol ; it Does not use any layer 4 is transport layer 3 provides routing with the help a! Programming Experts: What Functional Programming Language is best to Learn now 3 layer... Ethernet is an encapsulating protocol deep Reinforcement Learning: What can we Do About it, Connectionless-mode service. Interoperability are complementary but separate concerns that are best addressed through different protocol layers layer-2 include MAC, RLC PDCP.The... With your comments, will be governed by DISQUS ’ privacy policy of 5G layer 1, 2 or is. Hosts on the underlying layer-2 network uses layer-1 links to actually move the bits PPP FDDI! Lans ), while layer 3 - network layer layer 3 VPN protocols: Protect the privateness you deserve and. Function properly, only one active path can exist between any two stations Node. Transfers data from nodes to nodes logical Node Profile: Profile Where one or more nodes are for. Also called the network layer, you are accepting the DISQUS terms of service not in... 802.3/802.2, HDLC, frame Relay of computer networking, the networklayer, is responsible. Incoming packets and make dynamic routing decisions based on the public domain is changed. Some layer 3 protocols ( a coincise overview ) Ardhendu Sekhar Sinha.. 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