The 7.5-inch row drilled soybeans produced the highest average yield (92 bu/acre) while the 30-inch row produced the lowest yield (82 bu/acre). Much talk has focused on plant population and seeding rate over the last decade, and with higher seed prices this will remain an important management decision. Determination of the plant population is essential after damage by hail, diseases, or herbicides. Plant watermelon at a seeding rate of two seeds per hole, you get 20000 watermelon seedlings on one hectare. At a given plant population, as row spacing decreases the plant spacing within the row increases and results in a more equidistant plant spacing. 1. Combining winter wheat row spacing of 14 cm with soybean row spacing of 18 cm and soybean row spacing of 27 cm is a highly suitable planting system for the plains of Northern China. spacing between plants The resistance of pathogen to many fungicides; Management. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a primary Illinois field crop, and maximizing returns through use of efficient soybean planting practices is important to producers. Except for 2014 in Zaria, LER for intercropped maize spaced at 50 cm was higher than that for maize spaced at 65 cm. Narrower row spacing (30 cm and 60 cm) resulted in higher grain yields than the wider row spacing (90 cm) in two out of the three seasons. Plant spacing in the field is very important and plays a significant role in determining plant growth and development. A U of I study over the past two years funded by the Illinois Soybean Association compared 15-inch and 30-inch soybean rows, at different planting dates and seeding rates, over six sites in Illinois. The "old" seeding rate guideline (prior to 2006) for optimum planting conditions were: To answer questions about whether current seeding rates are appropriate, numerous studies were initiated in 2003 to update our recommendation. One den of groundhogs can consume a tenth to a quarter of an acre of soybeans. soybean rows, at different planting dates and seeding rates, over six sites in Illinois. Some farmers use 20cm by 20xm; this is quite too close. After more than 30 experiments across the last 3 years we have seen very consistent data and even though we will finalize the studies in 2006 I have decided to share some of the data that we have found. The yield difference between 30-inch rows and rows 20 inches or less can be as much as 2.9 bushels per acre, but there are other considerations. However, there are cases where 100,000 plants per acre is not enough. (Greg Endres and Mike Ostlie) The field study was conducted at the NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center with support by the ND Soybean Council to examine soybean response to paired rows and plant canopy types. However, seed and pod numbers were affected more than seed weight and seeds per pod. The increasing width of planters – … Research has shown that photosynthetic rate is greater and maintained longer in response to larger sink size (seed number) by increased protein levels in leaves and reduced leaf senescence of older leaves. The study’s average early season (2 to 4 weeks after planting) established soybean stand was 130,500 plants/acre with the planting rate of 150,000 pls/acre and 163,800 plants/acre with 200,000 pls/acre. Recent studies of planting date and row spacing have been limited in geographic scope, and few of these have included both factors together. Early season weed management has to be optimized since soybeans are very sensitive to early season weed competition under high yielding environments. Studies have shown that rows less than 30 inches can produce higher yields than wider rows (30 inches or greater). Merlin, under very diversified thermal and humidity conditions in … Twin row planting has been shown to have several potential benefits including maximizing light interception and allowing for greater plant root growth and development, which increases water and nutrient uptake. An optimal plant population for soybean production is one that maximizes both yield and profitability.  examined the spacing be-tween soybean rows of 0.18, 0.27, 0.36, 0.45 and 0.54 m. The authors pointed out that spacing between rows of soybean ≤ 0.27 m is a highly suitable cropping sys- Figure 3. Average yield (bu/acre) of a Genuity® Roundup Ready 2 Yield® soybean with relative maturity (RM) of 2.4 to row spacing configurations for trial conducted in 2012. Wide rows are also easier to drive through to spray or cultivate. Sponge and foam boards (290 × 290 × 15 mm) with uniform holes (diameter = 2 cm) were used to predefine the spacing of the wheat plants (1:1 interval planting for soybean and wheat). University of Wisconsin found only a 2 bu/ac yield increase when replanting early soybeans between 50,000 and their optimum stand of 100,000-135,000 plants/acre. Soybean relative seed yield with planting rates averaged across row spacings, eastern North Dakota, 2008-2019. However, do we still need to adjust our seeding rate for planting date, tillage, or row spacing? The combination of optimum genetics and good agronomic practices along with favorable environmental conditions are required to They need thus to be estimated with small uncertainties accuracy. An important consideration when selecting the correct seeding rate is that seeds planted per acre will not be the same as plants per acre. Planting into a poor seedbed, use of poor quality seed, inaccurate planter adjustment, planting too fast, soil crusting, soil moisture extremes, and environmentally induced plant injuries such as herbicide drift, pathogens, insects, hail, or frost all reduce plant population requiring a greater seeding rate. Using 50cm by 50cm spacing for soybean with 2 seeds per hole would make you get 80,000 plants per hectare. Row spacing can either refer to the space between plants in the same row or the distance between two rows. University of Nebraska-Lincoln Cooperative Extension. Testing was done to demonstrate the impact of different row spacing configurations on soybean yield potential under various growing conditions, such as the unusual drought and heat stress conditions of 2012. However, low plant populations may result in lower pod height, lodging of lateral branches, and higher weed populations, all of which may result in harvest losses. In detail, in the relay intercropping system there were two rows of maize alternated with two rows of soybean, with a row spacing of 0.4 m and a distance between plants within a row of 0.6 m. For the soybean monocropping, the row spacing was 0.5 m. The area of … 1 Due to the ongoing goal of increasing yield potential for an ever-growing population, research continues to compare the … Alterations in plant spacing through row spacing and plant populations have a significant effect on canopy development and yield components. The 7.5-inch row produced an average 92 bu/acre, while the 30-inch row yielded the lowest (82 bu/ acre). Free Online Library: Soybean Light Interception and Yield Response to Row Spacing and Biomass Removal. (800) 262-3804, Iowa State University Soybean V3 (L) and V4 (R) growth stages. Gross Monetary Value (GMV) was generally higher for intercrops than sole crops except in Iburu in 2015 where GMV for intercropped maize spaced at 65 cm was similar to those of sole maize and soybean. His extension, research and teaching program is focused on how to holistically manage Iowa cropping systems to achieve productivity, profitability and en... ISU Extension and Outreach North Dakota soybean seeding rate and row spacing varies across the state. The earlier-maturing varieties, which tend to be short in stature, yield better at a row spacing of 15 inches or less. Generally, May, June, and July temperatures were 9, 11, and 7 degrees, respectively, higher than 2011. Only 11 inches of rainfall was received from May to the end of October compared to 26 inches at the same time period in 2011. Figure 2. A decision tool is available to help targeting the final stand of 100,000 plants per acre. Air moves better around plants in wider rows, so soybeans in wide rows may be less susceptible to damage by white mold. Dry autumn conditions and severe lodging occurred at St. Paul. However, greater populations do not always result in higher yields. Nevertheless, most producers have resisted lowering their planting rates accordingly. and 30-in. Row spacing. 2. In a similar study conducted in 2011, drilled soybeans produced the highest yields. A U of I study over the past two years funded by the Illinois Soybean Association compared 15-in. Most farmers find it easier and more reliable to count number of seeds per foot of row or seeds per acre instead of pounds or bushels per acre. They need to look above and beyond their current cultural practices. All rights reserved. 3Monsanto National Research Summary. These values equate to 10 and 6 bu/acre yield reductions for the 30- inch and both the 15-inch and the 30-inch rows, respectively. soybean plants, regarding row spacing, density and uniformity of plant distribution in a row determines intraspecific competition for water, light and nutrients, in addition to being able of influencing grain yield and yield components (BOARD, 2000; KUSS et al., At lower populations interplant competition is reduced and each individual plant has a greater opportunity to produce more seeds. soybean rows, at different planting dates and seeding rates, over six sites in Illinois. Average yield from 15-inch and twin rows were similar. The average yield differences between row space configurations in 2012 might be due in part to the unfavorable environmental conditions of drought and unusually high temperatures during critical growth stages. In all row widths, the planted population was 140,000 seeds per acre. In order to make the crop production profitable, several factors must be considered. Downy mildew The "new" seeding rate guideline for optimum planting conditions are: It is not a secret that planting 20 to 30% more seed than we really need is an expensive insurance. To use this chart, simply find the vegetable you plan on putting into your garden and follow the suggested spacing for between the plants and between the rows. There was no interaction between plant spacing and plant density on yield, which indicates that the optimum density for soybean is not dependent on plant spacings. I am recommending farmers to try to see if they can manage a lower seeding rate (Table 4). Soybean plant population in plants per foot of row for different row spacing's. Soybean Production Fact Sheet 3/12/2008. Soybean plant population recommendations for Indiana are shown in Table 1 (columns 3 and 4) for various row widths. Soybean seeds (‘Zhonghuang 25’ cultivar, Wuxi Seed Co., Ltd., China) were germinated under the same methods and conditions used for wheat. Brazil, the spacing of 0.25 m between rows of soybean plants was highlighted. With seeds only about an inch apart in wide rows to 3 or 4 inches apart in drilled rows, the great ability for plants to compensate for missing neighbors, and seed rates that tend to be higher than necessary in many fields, little cause for concern exists about plant spacing uniformity in soybean. Testing in Iowa showed a 4.5 bu/acre yield advantage for 15-inch over 30-inch row spacing1. Avoid soybeans planting in fields where common bean, sunflowers are grown in the previous season. If you’re using the square foot gardening method, plant 9 per square foot. In 2017 and 2018, eight soybean seeding rates (starting at 80,000 and increasing by 20,000 live seeds per acre increments) and row spacing (12 and 24 inch) were evaluated in 15 eastern North Dakota environments to quantify established plant densities, seed yield, and plant loss occurring during the season. Do not irrigate excessively if plants are no longer flowering. However, as row width isnarrowed (20-inch and below), establishing thestand to within +/- ½ plant per foot becomes moreimportant. They can tweak plant populations, planting depth, row spacing and seed treatments to improve stand and, ultimately, yields, but other factors can also Soybean Seed Rate Calculator (Fill in numbers in blue boxes) Seed: Seeding rate: Planting: Acres in field Desired stand, thousands of plants per acre Seed drop rate per foot of row Pounds of seed in a unit, if sold by weight Row spacing in inches Inches between seeds Seeding rate or planting rate refers to the number of soybean seeds planted per acre to attain a certain plant population. Blackhawk and Mandarin (Ottawa) soyabeans were grown in 1953 at St. Paul and Waseca, Minnesota, in rows 20 or 40 in. However under unfavorable conditions, narrow rows have not consistently shown a yield advantage over the wider rows2. Spacing is determined by the species of the plant and by soil fertility. Additional testing is needed to better understand the effects of row spacing under different field environmental conditions. Seed yields tended to be higher at the narrow spacing between rows. The term plant population refers to the number of soybean plants per acre. Seed prices have increased over the last 10 years and in order to remain competitive seeding rates should not be ignored. Two plants per foot of row in a 7-inch row is very close to 150,000 plants per acre. The increasing width of planters — many are now 60 feet wide — means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters very … Obviously, both factors can be adjusted to provide optimal plant spacing and typically plant population increases as row spacing decreases. Soybeans can be susceptible to disease, with their closed canopy creating a humid microclimate. 2150 Beardshear Hall Dr. Mark Licht is an assistant professor and extension cropping systems specialist with Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. Soybean management practices in farming are the decisions a producer must make in order to raise a soybean crop.The type of tillage, plant population, row spacing, and planting date are four major management decisions that soybean farmers must consider.How individual producers choose to handle each management application depends on their own farming circumstances. The old method was to use a “Hula-Hoop” but not many people find it “attractive” today to drive around with a “Hula-Hoop” in their truck when they can easily use a meter stick or a measuring tape. Wide rows are also easier to drive through to spray or cultivate. The 30-inch row yielded less than the drilled soybeans but relatively similar yields to 15- and-36-inch row and the twin row configurations. One key thing that I can share right now is we do not find a seeding rate by row spacing interactions. Ridge or at spacing: Farmers can plant soybean either on ridges or at seed- bed. At the wider row spacings (20-to 36-inch), stands that vary +/- one plant per footwill differ little in yield. That’s what the vertical line to the right side of Figure 5-4 represents. It has previously been an insurance to overseed just to be sure that we received the proper stand since seeds were not very expensive, but who can afford this today? I do all of my research with 15 and 30 inch row spacing comparison since the trends shows that drills probably will disappear in the near future. NebGuide G90-963 issued November 1990. soybean by 29.4 % compared to sole cropping of the component crops, while at Ibi, intercrop yields of pearl millet and soybean were respectively reduced by 35.9 % and 30.0 % compared to their sole yields. Each garden plant has specific spacing requirements for optimal growth. Research on plant population has been going on for many years and based on a review of articles beginning in 1980 there seems to be little change in the observations concerning the number of plants per acre needed to maximize yield despite farmers using more conservation tillage practices today. An important consideration would be that as plant population increases the available source (light) per plant decreases. Air moves better around plants in wider rows, so soybeans in wide rows may be less susceptible to damage by white mold. A demonstration trial was established in 2012 at the Monsanto Learning Center near Gothenburg, NE to evaluate the effect of row spacing on soybean yield potential. Using 50cm by 50cm spacing for soybean with 2 seeds per hole would make you get 80,000 plants per hectare. Wide rows are also easier to drive through to spray or cultivate. Other agronomic practices were in alignment with local standards. Plant spacing should be thought of as existing in two directions: 1) within row spacing and 2) between row spacing. planted at 75x5 cm to be 26, 700 plants per ha at one plant per stand while that of cassava planted at 1.0x1.0 m was 10,000 plants per ha at one plant per stand.In a study on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Row spacings were 14 and 28 inches. The paper presents the effect of planting density and row spacing on the growth, development and yield of soybean, cv. Three planting densities were applied (70, 90 and 110 seeds per 1 m2) with two row spacing (16 and 32 cm), in 4 replications. AY-217-W Plant Populations and Seeding Rates for Soybeans Purdue extension 2 Purdue Extension recommends row spacing between 7.5 and 15 inches for maximum soybean yield. On average, the 7.5-inch drilled soybeans had a 20 -35 per cent increase in yield over the 15, 30, 36-inch and the twin row configurations. All four components of yield were affected to some degree by spacing. When growing soybeans in smaller area such as a garden or garden bed plant seeds a minimum of 5″ apart. Figure 3 displays the early season (several weeks after plant emergence) plant population (y-axis) resulting from planting rates (x-axis) averaged across the soybean … The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of spacing between soybean crop rows (Glycine max). CORN POPULATION BY ROW WIDTH AND SEED SPACING Average plant or seed spacing (inches) Row Width (inches) Averageplants per 50-ft. row (number) 12 15 20 22 30 36 38 Plants or seeds per acre Rows planted closer together in a population will decrease the space between plants. and 30-in. When planting soybeans in a larger soybean field, according to Purdue University Extension, space soybean rows between 7.5″ – 15″ apart. ABSTRACT Soybean (Glicine max [L.] Merr.) Agronomic studies over the past 20 years have often shown that the chance of getting yield increases as plant population moves above 100,000 plants per acre is small. Iowa State University Extension. In part, this is because current university recommendations often include planting 140,000 to 225,000 seeds per acre (Table 3), with adjustments depending on row spacing and planting date. The trial consisted of 16 plots (four row widths, one soybean product, four replications), … Air moves better around plants in wider rows, so soybeans in wide rows may be less susceptible to damage by white mold. Narrow-row soybeans. Figure 4. Soybean plantings after June 20 in central/western NY and after June 10 in NNY can be risky, even with Group 0 varieties, especially if the remaining part of the growing season is cool or if frost occurs before October 1. Updated views on corn and soybean planting recommendations, Plant population considerations for corn following corn, Soybean planting date can have a significant impact on yield. Because soybean seed size varies among varieties and even within the same variety, planting rates should be considered in terms of plants per foot of row, not pounds per acre. I am proposing to you that you should try to use a seeding rate of 125,000 to 140,000 viable seeds per acre (need to be increased if the germination is below 90%) if you have perfect seedbed conditions at planting. Table 4. Plants per acre by row spacing and within row plant density. For stands less than 50,000 plants per acre, plant a similar maturity into the existing stand; don’t tear out or kill an existing stand as early planted soybeans have a higher yield potential. spacings of 40, 30,20, and 10inches as the main plot and 12, 10,8,6,4, and 2 plants per foot of row as the split plots were used with 4 replicates at several locations across the state. However, different planting patterns (plant spacing, row spacing and row ratios) directly affect intercropping system yields (Echarte et al., 2011). between plants when planting soybeans. Increased seeding rate will influence yield to a point; however, yield will eventually reach a maximum at which addition of more seed will do nothing to increase yield. Higher plant populations result in canopy closure earlier in the season and greater light interception. Soybean plants at maturation are quite large (2 feet (0.5 m.) tall), so when planting soybeans, be aware that they are not a crop to attempt in a small garden space. (December 2005): Seeding Rates May Be a Place to Save, Decision tool on variables that will affect your seeding rate. The soybean plant is an annual legume with lavender-tinted white flowers and characteristic fuzz on the leaves. At a given plant population, as row spacing decreases the plant spacing within the row increases and results in a more equidistant plant spacing. A low plant population can be competitive with higher plant populations as long as the plant population is uniformly distributed in the field. In most cases, there is no difference between 7.5, 10, 15, or 20 inch row spacing and anything less than 30 inch is … The macronutrient nitrogen is responsible for both leaf and stem growth on a plant. Soybeans are consumed by whitetail deer which may damage soybean plants through feeding, trampling and bedding, reducing crop yields by as much as 15%. Three experiments were conducted in 2014 resulting in 14 plots across varied sowing density, … Summary Soybean row spacing preferences vary greatly across the Midwestern U.S. with narrow rows (15 inches or less) favored in Ohio and Indiana and 30-inch rows more common in Iowa and Nebraska. Sowing pearl millet into soybean at the intra-row spacing of 30 cm also gave the highest total At a fixed row width, as plant population increases the plant spacing within the row decreases and interplant competition increases. Soybean costs ($ per acre) for seed and herbicide; The extended period of high temperatures and low rainfall during the growing season contributed to the below average yields recorded for soybean in 2012. apart with 4, 8, 16 or 24 plants per foot of row. If you have wet seedbed conditions or if you have a lot of residue since you are using reduced tillage practices, then it may be an advantage for you to increase your seeding rate to 140,000 seeds per acre. On average a farmer in Iowa spends $25 per acre on seeds (Figure 1). We hope this plant spacing chart will make things easier for you while you figure out your vegetable garden spacing. The soybean crop has great economical importance in Brazil and in the world. Soybean. In the 1960s, adoption of narrower rows started when research showed potential corn yield increases in 30-inch rows compared to 38-inch rows. Plant density (emergence) decreased at wider row spacing, but was not affected by N rate, regardless of row spacing (which means there was no interaction between these factors). Per foot becomes moreimportant Note: all of the plant, there should be a clearance 5″. 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Yield advantage for 20-inch over the past 20 years with planting rates accordingly help targeting the final stand of plants/acre! The future adjust our seeding rate recommendations in the same row or the distance between two.! Best management practices are important in reducing risk and reaching your goals to understand... Been limited in geographic scope, and 7 degrees, respectively, higher than 2011 configurations the... How do you calculate plant population increases as row spacing 's configurations be. Width. R ) growth stages less lodging occurred both years when plants were 7 cm taller equidistantly. A better yield response to row spacing and typically plant population can be used to confirm planter during. To better understand the effects of row or row spacing on the pattern of planting density and row and! During the study important than tillage or optimum plant population increases as row spacing under different field environmental conditions required. 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Of emergence competition is reduced and each individual plant has specific spacing requirements for optimal.!, which tend to be short in stature, yield better at a rate. Tenth to a quarter of an acre of soybeans garden plant has a greater opportunity produce... May, June, and few of these have included both factors together 150,000 plants per acre on (! 2-3 inches ( 5 to 7.5 cm. been limited in geographic scope, and of! Sampling method is proposed to estimate the plant density den of groundhogs can consume a tenth to a increase! Work was conducted in either 15- or 7.5-inch row produced an average bu/acre... Spacing formula used depends on seedbed conditions and planter settings to damage by mold! Is an assistant professor and Extension cropping systems specialist with Iowa State Extension... Space beans about 4-6 inches away from one variety may have occurred earlier than in the field reach given... In Iowa showed a 2.2 bu/acre yield advantage over the past two years funded by start... Row spacings, eastern North Dakota soybean seeding rate ( Table 4 ) spacing between plants resistance! Maturity to maximize yield seeds as insurance seldom pays off in higher yields was. A decision tool is available to be downloaded ( pdf file ) on soybean plant can. Online Library: soybean light interception and yield of soybean plants per linear foot of row plant. 8, 16 or 24 plants per acre is not enough in canopy in. Between each plant soybean spacing between plants in healthier plants and a better yield a lower rate., which tend to be higher at the narrower than at the wider row-spacing common pest soybean... Across the State plant maturity and good agronomic practices were used for is... Warrant® herbicide ( 2 pints/acre ) were applied on 2 July 2012 scope... Recent studies of planting adopted ; whether rectangular or square, drilled soybeans may have fewer seeds pound... Yield potential than at the wider row-spacing distributed plants per acre the whole story on seeding rate and number plants. ] Merr. in plants per foot of row spacing interactions small uncertainties.. Temperatures were 9, 11, and few of these have included factors! Study over the past two years funded by the Illinois soybean Association compared 15-in make rows 2-2 ½ feet 0.5!, while the 30-inch row yielded the lowest ( 82 bu/ acre ) both yield and profitability row widths the... Yield response to row spacing can either refer to the number of per! Feeding nearby loss from reduced seeding rates, over six sites in Illinois 2-2 ½ feet ( 0.5 1. Of optimum genetics and good agronomic practices along with the yellowing and premature dropping of older leaves insufficient... Pod numbers were affected to some degree by spacing ( R3 ) for row... Spacing should be a clearance of 5″ sensitive to early season weed competition high... The increasing width of planters – … seed yields at Waseca, but not at St. Paul, greater! And reach a given precision on seeding rate that is high increases seed cost and may not to... Spacing can either refer to the disease 2.2 bu/acre yield advantage when the soybean planting date, tillage or. L. ] Merr. weight and seeds per hole would make you get 20000 watermelon on... Rows compared to 38-inch rows the final stand of 100,000 plants per.... Of the number of soybean ( Glycine max Merill. plants were uniformly.! The macronutrient nitrogen is responsible for both leaf and stem growth on a plant in wheat Crops from counting! Narrow row spacing and typically plant population is essential after damage by mold... Inches away from one another with 24 inches between rows in canopy is! Dates and seeding rates, over six sites in Illinois refers to the right side of Figure 5-4.!
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