In May 2010 Russia secured an agreement with the Turkish government to build a power plant with four VVER-1200 reactors at Akkuyu, Turkey. The VVER is a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the commonest type of nuclear reactor worldwide, employing light water as coolant and moderator. An AES-2006 is being bid for the Hanhikivi Nuclear Power Plant in Finland. Besides the reactor and steam generators this includes an improved refueling machine, and the computerized reactor control systems. The passive systems handle all safety functions for 24 hours, and core safety for 72 hours. In most VVERs this heat can also be further used for residential and industrial heating. Specifications include a $1,200 per kW overnight construction cost, 54 month planned construction time, a 60 year design lifetime at 90% capacity factor, and requiring about 35% fewer operational personnel than the VVER-1000. Hence, despite extensive modifications to these reactors over many years, the European Commission (EC) insisted on the early closure of two RBMK-1500 reactors in Lithuania, two VVER-440/V-230 reactors in Slovakia, and four VVER-440/V-230 reactors in Bulgaria as a condition of these countries' accession t… , In October 2013 the VVER-1000 (AES-92) design was selected by the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission in a competitive tender for Jordan's first twin reactor nuclear power station. PWR AND VVER SECONDARY SYSTEM WATER CHEMISTRY – STAND ALONE REPORT – 2010 7 Different water chemistry strategies (state of art) 7-1 7.1 High pH operation (High-AVT) 7-1 7.2 Alternative amines 7-12 7.2.1 Various additives and objectives 7-12 22.214.171.124 Alkaline reagent 7-12 126.96.36.199 Hydrazine 7-13 7.2.2 Amines properties 7-15 7.3 Oxygen injections / oxygenated water chemistry 7-23 VVER power stations have been mostly installed in Russia and the former Soviet Union, but also in China, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Bulgaria, India, and Iran. This is the chief concern of U.S. citizens. Before entering the turbine remaining water is. – actuation of control rods under scram due to gravity forces; – properties of self-limitation of the core power due to negative reactivity coefficients by fuel and coolant temperature and by power; – usage of passive elements, isolation, limiting and discharge devices; – usage of inertia coastdown In July 2016, the reactor vessel for unit 1 has hit the ground during transportation, and though no damage was sustained it was decided to be replaced to allay public fears, delaying the project by a year. The earliest VVERs were built before 1970. Unit 6 finished, but never operated. Slide show about nuclear reactor types and history. This model includes added emergency core cooling and auxiliary feedwater systems as well as upgraded accident localization systems.. Operational examples of such systems are Bohunice NPP (Slovakia) supplying heat to the towns of Trnava (12 km away), Leopoldov (9.5 km away), and Hlohovec (13 km away), and Temelín NPP (Czech Republic) supplying heat to Týn nad Vltavou 5 km away. The VVER 1200 will produce 1,198 MWe of power.. The VVER-440 Model V230 was the most common design, delivering 440 MW of electrical power. The RWFA design is an evolution of Westinghouse´s previous VVER-1000 fuel design, WFA, which was first introduced as Lead Test A mid-life major overhaul including a complete replacement of critical parts such as fuel and control rod channels was thought necessary after that.  (Fuel elements in an RBMK can be replaced while the reactor is running at its nominal output, allowing the continuous operation and plutonium extraction compared to most pressurized water reactors like the VVER which need to be shut down to exchange fuel rod assemblies.).  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